web浏览器颜色吸管工具实现方案

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前言

今天主要介绍一下web端颜色拾色器吸管工具的使用。ued需要在页面中用吸管吸取页面中的颜色,类似ps等工具里面的吸管工具,这个在web端网页中如何实现呢?

假如需要吸取桌面上面的任何颜色,最好使用原生api的方式,下面主要介绍两种原生方式的实现。

EyeDropper api实现

简单代码实现如下

<button id="start-button">haorooms eyedropper test</button> <span id="result"></span>

document.getElementById("start-button").addEventListener("click", () => {
  const resultElement = document.getElementById("result");

  if (!window.EyeDropper) {
    resultElement.textContent =
      "Your browser does not support the EyeDropper API";
    return;
  }

  const eyeDropper = new EyeDropper();

  eyeDropper
    .open()
    .then((result) => {
      resultElement.textContent = result.sRGBHex;
      resultElement.style.backgroundColor = result.sRGBHex;
    })
    .catch((e) => {
      resultElement.textContent = e;
    });
});

案例如下:

但是这个是比较新的api,浏览器兼容性方案,safari不支持。大家可以试试。

input type=color

input自带的颜色选择器貌似有吸管工具,可以使用。这个兼容性相对较好,可以尝试使用一下。

如下代码

<div>
  <input type="color" id="head" name="head" value="#e66465" />
  <label for="head">haorooms_ids</label>
</div>

<div>
  <input type="color" id="body" name="body" value="#f6b73c" />
  <label for="body">haorooms_body</label>
</div>

案例如下:

其他方案

其他方案实现起来相对较麻烦,不太适合。

网上有个方案是利用网页截图-》绘制&获取像素点颜色-》绘制放大镜和颜色值

源码如下:

/**
 * 网页颜色吸管工具【拾色器】
 * date: 2021.10.31
 * author: alanyf
 */
import domtoimage from './dom-to-image.js';
import { drawTooltip, getCanvas, getCanvasRectColor, loadImage, rbgaObjToHex, renderColorInfo } from './helper';
import type { IProps, IRect } from './interface';

export * from './interface';

/**
 * 网页拾色器【吸管工具】
 */
class ColorPipette {
  container: any = {};
  listener: Record<string, (e: any) => void> = {};
  rect: IRect = { x: 0, y: 0, width: 0, height: 0 };
  canvas: any = {};
  ctx: any;
  scale = 1;
  magnifier: any = null;
  colorContainer: any = null;
  colors: string[][] = [];
  tooltipVisible = true;
  useMagnifier = false;
  constructor(props: IProps) {
    try {
      const { container, listener, scale = 1, useMagnifier = false } = props;
      this.container = container || document.body;
      this.listener = listener || {};
      this.rect = this.container.getBoundingClientRect();
      this.scale = scale > 4 ? 4 : scale;
      this.useMagnifier = useMagnifier;
      // 去除noscript标签,可能会导致
      const noscript = document.body.querySelector('noscript');
      noscript?.parentNode?.removeChild(noscript);
      this.initCanvas();
    } catch (err) {
      console.error(err);
      this.destroy();
    }
  }
  /**
   * 初始化canvas
   */
  initCanvas() {
    const { rect, scale } = this;
    const { x, y, width, height } = rect;
    const { canvas, ctx } = getCanvas({
      width: rect.width,
      height: rect.height,
      scale,
      attrs: {
        class: 'color-pipette-canvas-container',
        style: `
          position: fixed;
          left: ${x}px;
          top: ${y}px;
          z-index: 10000;
          cursor: pointer;
          width: ${width}px;
          height: ${height}px;
        `,
      },
    });
    this.canvas = canvas;
    this.ctx = ctx;
  }
  /**
   * 开始
   */
  async start() {
    try {
      await this.drawCanvas();
      document.body.appendChild(this.canvas);
      const tooltip = drawTooltip('按Esc可退出');
      document.body.appendChild(tooltip);
      setTimeout(() => tooltip?.parentNode?.removeChild(tooltip), 2000);
      // 添加监听
      this.canvas.addEventListener('mousemove', this.handleMove);
      this.canvas.addEventListener('mousedown', this.handleDown);
      document.addEventListener('keydown', this.handleKeyDown);
    } catch (err) {
      console.error(err);
      this.destroy();
    }
  }
  /**
   * 结束销毁dom,清除事件监听
   */
  destroy() {
    this.canvas.removeEventListener('mousemove', this.handleMove);
    this.canvas.removeEventListener('mousedown', this.handleDown);
    document.removeEventListener('keydown', this.handleKeyDown);
    this.canvas?.parentNode?.removeChild(this.canvas);
    this.colorContainer?.parentNode?.removeChild(this.colorContainer);
  }

  /**
   * 将dom节点画到canvas里
   */
  async drawCanvas() {
    const base64 = await domtoimage.toPng(this.container, { scale: this.scale }).catch(() => '');
    if (!base64) {
      return;
    }
    const img = await loadImage(base64);
    if (!img) {
      return;
    }
    this.ctx.drawImage(img, 0, 0, this.rect.width, this.rect.height);
  }

  /**
   * 处理鼠标移动
   */
  handleMove = (e: any) => {
    const { color, colors } = this.getPointColors(e);
    const { onChange = () => '' } = this.listener;
    const point = { x: e.pageX + 15, y: e.pageY + 15 };
    const colorContainer = renderColorInfo({
      containerDom: this.colorContainer,
      color,
      colors,
      point,
    });
    if (!this.colorContainer) {
      this.colorContainer = colorContainer;
      document.body.appendChild(colorContainer);
    }
    onChange({ color, colors });
  }

  /**
   * 处理鼠标按下
   */
  handleDown = (e: any) => {
    const { onOk = () => '' } = this.listener;
    const res = this.getPointColors(e);
    console.log(JSON.stringify(res.colors, null, 4));
    onOk(res);
    this.destroy();
  }

  /**
   * 处理键盘按下Esc退出拾色
   */
  handleKeyDown = (e: KeyboardEvent) => {
    if (e.code === 'Escape') {
      this.destroy();
    }
  };

  /**
   * 获取鼠标点周围的颜色整列
   */
  getPointColors(e: any) {
    const { ctx, rect, scale } = this;
    let { pageX: x, pageY: y } = e;
    x -= rect.x;
    y -= rect.y;
    const color = this.getPointColor(x, y);
    const size = 19;
    const half = Math.floor(size / 2);
    const info = { x: x - half, y: y - half, width: size, height: size };
    const colors = getCanvasRectColor(ctx, info, scale);
    return { color, colors };
  }

  /**
   * 获取鼠标点的颜色
   */
  getPointColor(x: number, y: number) {
    const { scale } = this;
    const { data } = this.ctx.getImageData(x * scale, y * scale, 1, 1);
    const r = data[0];
    const g = data[1];
    const b = data[2];
    const a = data[3] / 255;
    const rgba = { r, g, b, a };
    return rbgaObjToHex(rgba);
  }
}

export default ColorPipette;

import type { IColors, IRect, IRgba } from './interface';

/**
 * 加载base64图片
 * @param base64
 * @returns
 */
export const loadImage = (base64: string) => {
  return new Promise((resolve) => {
    const img = new Image();
    img.src = base64;
    img.onload = () => resolve(img);
    img.onerror = () => resolve(null);
  });
};

// 十进制转化为16进制
export function hex(n: number){
  return `0${n.toString(16)}`.slice(-2);
}

/**
 * rbga对象转化为16进制颜色字符串
 * @param rgba
 * @returns
 */
export const rbgaObjToHex = (rgba: IRgba) => {
  let { r, g, b } = rgba;
  const { a } = rgba;
  r = Math.floor(r * a);
  g = Math.floor(g * a);
  b = Math.floor(b * a);
  return `#${hex(r)}${hex(g)}${hex(b)}`;
};

/**
 * rbga对象转化为rgba css颜色字符串
 * @param rgba
 * @returns
 */
export const rbgaObjToRgba = (rgba: IRgba) => {
  const { r, g, b, a } = rgba;
  return `rgba(${r},${g},${b},${a})`;
};

/**
 * 显示颜色信息,包括放大镜和颜色值
 * @param params
 * @returns
 */
export const renderColorInfo = (params: any) => {
  const { containerDom, color, colors, point } = params;
  let container = containerDom;
  const pos = point;
  const n = 7;
  const count = colors[0].length;
  const size = count * (n + 0) + 2;
  if (!container) {
    const magnifier: any = document.createElement('div');
    container = magnifier;
  }
  if (pos.x + size + 25 > window.innerWidth) {
    pos.x -= size + 25;
  }
  if (pos.y + size + 40 > window.innerHeight) {
    pos.y -= size + 40;
  }
  container.style = `
    position: fixed;
    left: ${pos.x + 5}px;
    top: ${pos.y}px;
    z-index: 10001;
    pointer-events: none;
  `;
  container.innerHTML = '';
  const pipette = drawPipette(colors, n);
  const colorBlock = drawColorBlock(color);
  const padding: any = document.createElement('div');
  padding.style = 'height: 3px;';
  container.appendChild(pipette);
  container.appendChild(padding);
  container.appendChild(colorBlock);
  return container;
}

/**
 * 绘制放大镜
 * @param colors 颜色二位数组
 * @param size 单个像素点显示大小
 * @returns
 */
export function drawPipette(colors: IColors, size = 8) {
  const scale = 2;
  const canvasContainer: any = document.createElement('div');
  const canvasContent: any = document.createElement('div');
  const pipetteCanvas: any = drawPipetteCanvas(colors, size);
  canvasContainer.style = `position: relative;`;
  canvasContent.style = `
    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    width: ${pipetteCanvas.width / scale}px;
    height: ${pipetteCanvas.height / scale}px;
    border-radius: 50%;
    box-shadow: 0 0 10px 10px rgba(150,150,150,0.2) inset;
  `;
  canvasContainer.appendChild(pipetteCanvas);
  canvasContainer.appendChild(canvasContent);
  return canvasContainer;
}

/**
 * 颜色方块和颜色值显示
 * @param color
 * @returns
 */
export function drawColorBlock(color: string) {
  const colorBlock: any = document.createElement('div');
  colorBlock.style = `
    display: flex;
    align-items: center;
    background-color: rgba(0,0,0,0.4);
    padding: 2px 4px;
    border-radius: 3px;
  `;
  colorBlock.innerHTML = `
    <div style="
      width: 20px;
      height: 20px;
      background-color: ${color};
      border-radius: 3px;
      border: 1px solid #eee;
    "></div>
    <div style="
      width: 65px;
      border-radius: 3px;
      color: #fff;
      margin-left: 4px;
    ">${color}</div>
  `;
  return colorBlock;
}

/**
 * 显示提示
 * @param content
 * @param tooltipVisible
 * @returns
 */
export function drawTooltip(content: string, tooltipVisible = true) {
  const tooltip: any = document.createElement('div');
  tooltip.id = 'color-pipette-tooltip-container';
  tooltip.innerHTML = content;
  tooltip.style = `
    position: fixed;
    left: 50%;
    top: 30%;
    z-index: 10002;
    display: ${tooltipVisible ? 'flex' : 'none'};
    align-items: center;
    background-color: rgba(0,0,0,0.4);
    padding: 4px 10px;
    border-radius: 3px;
    color: #fff;
    font-size: 20px;
    pointer-events: none;
  `;
  return tooltip;
}

/**
 * 绘制放大镜canvas
 * @param colors
 * @param size
 * @returns
 */
 export function drawPipetteCanvas(colors: IColors, size: number) {
  const count = colors.length;
  const diameter = size * count;
  const radius = diameter / 2;
  const { canvas, ctx } = getCanvas({
    width: diameter,
    height: diameter,
    scale: 2,
    attrs: {
      style: `border-radius: 50%;`,
    },
  });
  if (!ctx) {
    return;
  }
  // 画像素点
  colors.forEach((row, i) => row.forEach((color, j) => {
    ctx.fillStyle = color;
    ctx.fillRect(j * size, i * size, size, size);
  }));
  // 画水平线
  for (let i = 0; i < count; i += 1) {
    ctx.beginPath();
    ctx.strokeStyle = '#eee';
    ctx.lineWidth = 0.6;
    ctx.moveTo(0, i * size);
    ctx.lineTo(diameter, i * size);
    ctx.stroke();
  }
  // 画垂直线
  for (let j = 0; j < count; j += 1) {
    ctx.beginPath();
    ctx.strokeStyle = '#eee';
    ctx.lineWidth = 0.6;
    ctx.moveTo(j * size, 0);
    ctx.lineTo(j * size, diameter);
    ctx.stroke();
  }
  // 画圆形边框
  ctx.beginPath();
  ctx.strokeStyle = '#ddd';
  ctx.arc(radius, radius, radius, 0, 2 * Math.PI);
  ctx.stroke();
  // 画中心像素点
  ctx.strokeStyle = '#000';
  ctx.lineWidth = 1;
  ctx.strokeRect(radius - size / 2, radius - size / 2, size, size);
  return canvas;
}

/**
 * 生成canvas
 * @param param0
 * @returns
 */
 export function getCanvas({ width = 0, height = 0, scale = 1, attrs = {} as Record<string, any> }) {
  const canvas: any = document.createElement('canvas');
  Object.keys(attrs).forEach((key) => {
    const value = attrs[key];
    canvas.setAttribute(key, value);
  });
  canvas.setAttribute('width', `${width * scale}`);
  canvas.setAttribute('height', `${height * scale}`);
  canvas.style = `${attrs.style || ''};width: ${width}px;height: ${height}px;`;
  const ctx = canvas.getContext('2d');
  ctx?.scale(scale, scale);
  return { canvas, ctx };
}

/**
 * 获取将canvas输出的数据转化为二位数组
 * @param data
 * @param rect
 * @param scale
 * @returns
 */
 const getImageColor = (data: any[], rect: IRect, scale: number = 1) => {
  const colors: any[][] = [];
  const { width, height } = rect;
  for (let row = 0; row < height; row += 1) {
    if (!colors[row]) {
      colors[row] = [];
    }
    const startIndex = row * width * 4 * scale * scale;
    for (let column = 0; column < width; column += 1) {
      const i = startIndex + column * 4 * scale;
      const r = data[i];
      const g = data[i + 1];
      const b = data[i + 2];
      const a = data[i + 3] / 255;
      const color = rbgaObjToHex({ r, g, b, a });
      colors[row][column] = color;
    }
  }
  return colors;
};

/**
 * 获取canvas某一区域的颜色值二位数组
 * @param ctx
 * @param rect
 * @param scale
 * @returns
 */
 export const getCanvasRectColor = (ctx: any, rect: IRect, scale: number = 1) => {
  const { x, y, width, height } = rect;
  // console.log(x, y, width, height);
  const image = ctx.getImageData(x * scale, y * scale, width * scale, height * scale);
  const { data } = image;
  const colors = getImageColor(data, rect, scale);
  return colors;
}


export interface Point {
  x: number;
  y: number;
}

export interface IRect {
  x: number;
  y: number;
  width: number;
  height: number;
}

export type IColors = string[][];

export interface IRgba {
  r: number;
  g: number;
  b: number;
  a: number;
}

export interface IProps {
  container: any;
  listener?: Record<string, (e: any) => void>;
  scale?: number;
  useMagnifier?: boolean;
}

实验下了,这种方案不是太好,效果不理想。建议采用原生方案来实现!

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